Understanding Strabismus: Causes and Treatment Options


Strabismus, commonly known as crossed eyes or squint, is a condition that affects the alignment of the eyes. It occurs when the eyes do not align properly and point in different directions. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the causes of strabismus and discuss various treatment options available.

Types of Strabismus and Their Causes

To understand the causes of strabismus, it is important to differentiate between the different types of the condition. Strabismus can be classified into two main categories: congenital (occurring in children) and acquired (developing in adults).

Congenital Strabismus

The exact causes of congenital strabismus are still unknown. However, researchers believe that genetic factors play a significant role, as it tends to run in families. If a person has a family history of strabismus, there is an increased likelihood of their offspring developing the condition.

Acquired Strabismus

Acquired strabismus in adults can be caused by various factors, including:

  • Eye or blood vessel damage: Conditions such as muscle and nerve disorders, cataract, stroke, Graves’ disease, eye tumors, and blindness can lead to acquired strabismus. Blindness, in particular, can cause the eye to gradually turn outward and result in strabismus, regardless of the underlying cause of vision loss.
  • Diabetes: Individuals with diabetes may develop strabismus due to poor blood supply to the eye muscles, leading to misalignment of the eyes.
  • Neurological conditions: Certain neurological conditions, including brain tumors, premature birth, Down’s syndrome, hydrocephalus, and cerebral palsy, can contribute to strabismus. These conditions affect the coordination of eye movements and can result in misalignment.
  • Untreated or unsuccessfully treated childhood strabismus: In some cases, strabismus that was not treated or not effectively treated during childhood can persist into adulthood and cause acquired strabismus.

Treatment Options for Strabismus

The treatment for strabismus depends on the underlying cause, severity of the condition, and individual circumstances. Here are some common treatment options:

Corrective lenses and vision therapy

In cases where refractive errors contribute to strabismus, prescription glasses or contact lenses may be prescribed to correct vision. Vision therapy, which involves eye exercises and training, can also be beneficial in improving eye coordination and alignment.

Patching and eye exercises

For children with amblyopia, or lazy eye, patching the stronger eye can help strengthen the weaker eye and improve alignment. Eye exercises, such as focusing exercises and eye-tracking activities, may also be recommended to improve eye muscle control.

Botox injections

In certain cases, Botox injections may be used to temporarily paralyze specific eye muscles, allowing the eyes to realign. This treatment option is typically reserved for adults with specific types of strabismus.


Surgical intervention may be necessary in cases where strabismus persists despite other treatments or when the misalignment is severe. The goal of surgery is to adjust the tension in the eye muscles and align the eyes properly. It is important to note that surgery may be followed by further vision therapy to optimize results.

Seeking Professional Advice

If you or your child are experiencing symptoms of strabismus, it is essential to consult with an eye care professional. They will conduct a comprehensive eye examination and provide an accurate diagnosis. Based on the specific findings, they can recommend an appropriate treatment plan tailored to your individual needs.

Remember, early detection and intervention can greatly improve the prognosis of strabismus. Seeking timely professional advice is crucial to ensure the best possible outcomes.

Related Posts